Thu, 28 Jan 2016

Introducing Go Continuous Delivery

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Go Continuous Delivery (short GoCD or simply Go) is an open source tool that controls an automated build or deployment process.

It consists of a server component that holds the pipeline configuration, polls source code repositories for changes, schedules and distributes work, collects artifacts, and presents a web interface to visualize and control it all, and offers a mechanism for manual approval of steps. One or more agents can connect to the server, and carry out the actual jobs in the build pipeline.

Pipeline Organization

Every build, deployment or test jobs that GoCD executes must be part of a pipeline. A pipeline consists of one or more linearly arranged stages. Within a stage, jobs run potentially in parallel, and are individually distributed to agents. Tasks are again linearly executed within a job. The most general task is the execution of an external program. Other tasks include the retrieval of artifacts, or specialized things such as running a Maven build.

Matching of Jobs to Agents

When an agent is idle, it polls the server for work. If the server has jobs to run, it uses two criteria to decide if the agent is fit for carrying out the job: environments and resources.

Each job is part of a pipeline, and a pipeline is part of an environment. On the other hand, each agent is configured to be part of one or more environments. An agent only accepts jobs from pipelines from one of its environments.

Resources are user-defined labels that describe what an agent has to offer, and inside a pipeline configuration, you can specify what resources a job needs. For example you can define that job requires the phantomjs resource to test a web application, then only agents that you assign this resource will execute that job. It is also a good idea to add the operating system and version as a resources. In the example above, the agent might have the phantomjs, debian and debian-jessie resources, offering the author of the job some choice of granularity for specifying the required operating system.

Installing the Go Server on Debian

To install the Go server on a Debian or Debian-based operating system, first you have to make sure you can download Debian packages via HTTPS:

$ apt-get install -y apt-transport-https

Then you need to configure the package sourcs:

$ echo 'deb /' > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/gocd.list
$ curl | apt-key add -

And finally install it:

$ apt-get update && apt-get install -y go-server

When you now point your browser at port 8154 of the go server for HTTPS (ignore the SSL security warnings) or port 8153 for HTTP, you should see to go server's web interface:

To prevent unauthenticated access, create a password file (you need to have the apache2-utils package installed to have the htpasswd command available) on the command line:

$ htpasswd -c -s /etc/go-server-passwd go-admin
New password:
Re-type new password:
Adding password for user go-admin
$ chown go: /etc/go-server-passwd
$ chmod 600 /etc/go-server-passwd

In the go web interface, click on the Admin menu and then "Server Configuration". In the "User Management", enter the path /etc/go-server-passwd in the field "Password File Path" and click on "Save" at the bottom of the form.

Immediately afterwards, the go server asks you for username and password.

You can also use LDAP or Active Directory for authentication.

Installing a Go Worker on Debian

On one or more servers where you want to execute the automated build and deployment steps, you need to install a go agent, which will connect to the server and poll it for work. On each server, you need to do the first same three steps as when installing the server, to ensure that you can install packages from the go package repository. And then, of course, install the go agent:

$ apt-get install -y apt-transport-https
$ echo 'deb /' > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/gocd.list
$ curl | apt-key add -
$ apt-get update && apt-get install -y go-agent

Then edit the file /etd/default/go-agent. The first line should read


Change the right-hand side to the hostname or IP address of your go server, and then start the agent:

$ service go-agent start

After a few seconds, the agent has contacted the server, and when you click on the "Agents" menu in the server's web frontend, you should see the agent:

("lara" is the host name of the agent here).

A Word on Environments

Go makes it possible to run agents in specific environments, and for example run a go agent on each testing and on each production machine, and use the matching of pipelines to agent environments to ensure that for example an installation step happens on the right machine in the right environment. If you go with this model, you can also use Go to copy the build artifacts to the machines where they are needed.

I chose not to do this, because I didn't want to have to install a go agent on each machine that I want to deploy to. Instead I use Ansible, executed on a Go worker, to control all machines in an environment. This requires managing the SSH keys that Ansible uses, and distributing packages through a Debian repository. But since Debian seems to require a repository anyway to be able to resolve dependencies, this is not much of an extra hurdle.

So don't be surprised when the example project here only uses a single environment in Go, which I call Control.

First Contact with Go's XML Configuration

There are two ways to configure your Go server: through the web interface, and through a configuration file in XML. You can also edit the XML config through the web interface.

While the web interface is a good way to explore go's capabilities, it quickly becomes annoying to use due to too much clicking. Using an editor with good XML support get things done much faster, and it lends itself better to compact explanation, so that's the route I'm going here.

In the Admin menu, the "Config XML" item lets you see and edit the server config. This is what a pristine XML config looks like, with one agent already registered:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<cruise xmlns:xsi="" xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="cruise-config.xsd" schemaVersion="77">
<server artifactsdir="artifacts" commandRepositoryLocation="default" serverId="b2ce4653-b333-4b74-8ee6-8670be479df9">
    <passwordFile path="/etc/go-server-passwd" />
    <agent hostname="lara" ipaddress="" uuid="19e70088-927f-49cc-980f-2b1002048e09" />

The ServerId and the data of the agent will differ in your installation, even if you followed the same steps.

To create an environment and put the agent in, add the following section somewhere within <cruise>...</cruise>:

    <environment name="Control">
        <physical uuid="19e70088-927f-49cc-980f-2b1002048e09" />

(The agent UUID must be that of your agent, not of mine).

To give the agent some resources, you can change the <agent .../> tag in the <agents> section to read:

<agent hostname="lara" ipaddress="" uuid="19e70088-927f-49cc-980f-2b1002048e09">

Creating an SSH key

It is convenient for Go to have an SSH key without password, to be able to clone git repositories via SSH, for example.

To create one, run the following commands on the server:

$ su - go $ ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 2048 -N '' -f ~/.ssh/id_rsa

And either copy the resulting .ssh directory and the files therein onto each agent into the /var/go directory (and remember to set owner and permissions as they were created originally), or create a new key pair on each agent.

Ready to Go

Now that the server and an agent has some basic configuration, it is ready for its first pipeline configuration. Which we'll get to soon :-).

I'm writing a book on automating deployments. If this topic interests you, please sign up for the Automating Deployments newsletter. It will keep you informed about automating and continuous deployments. It also helps me to gauge interest in this project, and your feedback can shape the course it takes.

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